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WMX Code Examples

This article describes various software coding techniques to implement the WMX protocol.

Binary Encoding the WMX Data Field

If you are useing WMX to send 8-bit binary data, then you must encode the data as described in the WMX protocol document.  If you are sending 7-bit ASCII data, or your data will never have the ASCII charactor 255, 3, or 4 in it, then you do not need to encode the data, and yo umay simply embed your data in the data field of the WMX packet.

Visual Basic Encoding Example

Function BinaryEncodeWMX(ByRef bdata() AsChar, ByRef ByteCount AsInteger) As Array

‘ WMX encodes the charactors 0x03 and 0x04 so they never appear in the data
Dim T(1000) AsChar
Dim Y AsInteger = 0
Dim X AsInteger
For X = 0 To ByteCount – 1
If bdata(X) = Chr(255) Or bdata(X) = Chr(3) Or bdata(X) = Chr(4) Or bdata(X) = Chr(13) Then
                T(Y) = Chr(255)
                Y = Y + 1
                T(Y) = Chr(255 – Asc(bdata(X)))
Else
                T(Y) = bdata(X)
EndIf
            Y = Y + 1
Next
BinaryEncodeWMX = T
ByteCount = Y
EndFunction
 

Binary Decoding the WMX Data Field

Visual Basic Bindary Decoding Example

‘ Get the data, converting back to binary. ETXpos points to the end of the data array, SOTpos points to the beginning.
‘ WMX is a string containing the binary encoded WMX bytes as embedded inside the WMX packet.
x = SOTpos + 1

Y  = 0
While x < (ETXpos – SOTpos)
                Ch1 = Mid(WMX, x, 1)
If Ch1 = 255 Then
                    x = x + 1
Ch1 = Mid(WMX, x, 1)
‘ decode the binary encoding
                    NewWMX.DataBytes(Y) = 255 – Ch1
Else
                    NewWMX.DataBytes(Y) = Ch1
EndIf
          x = x + 1
          Y = Y + 1
EndWhile
NewWMX.ByteCount = Y

 C Bindary Decoding Example

// ***************************************************************************
// Move the data from a WMX buffer over to the txbits
// Remove any binary encoding.
// User Sends Actual data over-the-air
// 0xFF 0x00 0xFF
// 0xFF 0xFC 0x03
// 0xFF 0xFB 0x04
// byte_count is the number of bytes in the WMX data portion of the WMX frame
// Return the numberof bytes to transmit over the air
// ****************************************************************************
int move_wmxbuff(char buf_num, int byte_count, int data_location){
int x = 0;
int ret_val = 0;
unsigned char c1;
unsigned char c2;
 
while ((x < byte_count) && ( x < MAX_PACKET) && ( x < WMX_BUFFER_SIZE)){
c1 = wmx_tx_framebuff[buf_num][data_location]; // get the byte
data_location++;
c2 = wmx_tx_framebuff[buf_num][data_location]; // get the next byte
if (c1 == WMX_BINARY_CODE){
 // We detected a binary flag, so decode it.
c1 = WMX_BINARY_CODE – c2; // decode it
// Move past the second byte
data_location++;
x++;
}
txbits[txbit_put] = c1; // move the byte to txbits
txbit_put++;
ret_val++;
x++;
}
return ret_val;
}

 

 

 

 

 

Optimize over-the-air bandwidth usage with WMX modem status

Raveon’s WMX protocol is the preferred way to communicate over-the-air in advanced or tightly-integrated configurations. As of version D4 of the protocol, it is now possible to closely monitor message queuing, transmission and acknowledgement. This allows bandwidth usage to be optimized for the communication application.

Bit 5 in the WMX control field indicates whether the modem should provide additional message information back to the sender. Setting this bit in a message sent to a modem will cause two messages sent back to the receiver:

  1. A message indicating whether the message was accepted and queued (“Q”) or was rejected due to a full buffer or other condition (“N”)
  2. A message indicating that the message has been transmitted (“T”), processed locally as a command (“L”) or was flushed from the buffer and not processed (“F”)

The messages will indicate the sequence number of the message whose status is being provided.

Number of bytes

Field Name

Data

1

Message Status

ASCII Character Indicating a Message Status. It will be one of:

‘Q’ – Message has been accepted and queued for transmission

‘N’ – Message was not accepted for transmission and has been dropped

‘T’ – Message was sent over-the-air and has been fully processed

‘L’ – Message was processed locally (commands to the local radio)

‘F’ – Message was queued but subsequently flushed and not transmitted

1

Status Separator (,)

1-3

Original Sequence Number

The sequence number of the original message (the message whose status is being provided). ASCII Decimal formatted.

1

Status Separator (,)

1-4

Message TOID

The destination address of the original message (the message whose status is being provided). ASCII Hex formatted.

This information provides insight into bandwidth usage that allows optimization for the particular communication scenario. For instance, an installation using TDMA will queue data to be sent until the modems transmission slot is available. If only a single message or a set amount of data should be queued, the application can wait for the “T”, “L” or “F” messages before providing another message to send over-the-air.

Acknowledgement messages received by the modem also generate special WMX packets. When an acknowledgement is received, a message with frame type 3 will be output from the modem. This message will indicate which sequence number was acknowledged by the remote radio. With a combination of the queue full (“N”), transmit (“T”) and acknowledgement messages, it is possible to send bulk data continuously over-the-air as well as re-transmit any data that is not acknowledged.

Example code for interfacing with our radios using WMX can be found in our public code repository.

For advice on your own system implementation from a Raveon engineer, contact us today.

Interfacing RS-485 to M7 Series Data Radio Modems

RS-485 is a two-wire connection, with the pair of wires transmitting and receiving data. With the RS-485 feature enabled (ATIO 2 command), the 9-pin serial I/O connector on the front of the Raveon data radio modem model M5 and M7 will be put into the RS-485 mode of operation.  The serial I/O connector is a female 9-pin D-subminiature connector having the following pin configuration.

DB9

Front-view of DB-9 connector on M7 data radio modem (female)

The following table lists the pin functions for the input and output pins on the DB9 connector when it is in the RS-485 mode.

Pin # Name Dir Function Level / Specification
1 Do not connect Do not connect this pin to anything.
2 B (-) I/O B Inverting RS-485 data in line
3 Out – out Z Connect to pin 2
4 A (+) I/O A Non-inverting RS-485 data out line
5 GND Ground Connect to earth ground.
6 Do not connect Do not connect this pin to anything.
7 Out + out Y Connect to pin 4
8
9 Vin In/Out DC Power DC Power in or out if unit is powered using DC in jack.

 

The RS485 differential data line consists of two pins, A and B.

B  TxD-/RxD- aka inverting pin which is negative (compared to B) when the line is idle.
A  TxD+/RxD+ aka non-inverting pin which is positive (compared to A) when the line is idle.

Configuring The M7 Radio Modem

To configure the M7 modem for RS-485 operation, use the ATIO x command. ATIO 2 sets the serial port for standard RS-485, full duplex. ATIO 3 sets the serial port for RS-485 simplex mode. In most cases, RS-485 simplex is preferred (ATIO 3).  Also, turn off character echo using the ATE0 command.   If echo is on, communications will be garbled when the radio is in the command mode.

In simplex RS-485 mode, the M7’s serial data receiver is internally disabled whenever it sends a character out the serial port, so that it will not receive its own data. For most application use the RS485 simplex mode, ATIO 3. If you are using two M7 modems with RS485 on both units, you must use the simplex RS485 mode instead of the duplex RS485 mode, or the modems will enter an infinite loop-back condition. If you wish to run the RS485 in full-duplex mode, the interface must be wired with two separate pairs of wires; A&B on one pair, and Out+&Out- on the other pair.

DB9-485

Raveon’s RS-485 I/O circuit uses 3.3V logic to drive the lines, and the RS485 pins are ESD protected to ±15kV and 7kV human body model. Input current is less than 150uA. Output current when not driving the line is less than 50uA.
image

Bias and Termination Resistors

RS-485 installations typically have a termination resistor across the A and B lines. For low-speed operation (<57600 baud), this resistor is probably not necessary. If you wish to use a terminating resistor, a value of 150 ohms should work in most applications.

These A/B pin names are all in use on various types of equipment. The RS485 signaling specification states that signal A is the inverting or ‘-‘ pin and signal B is the non-inverting or ‘+’ pin. The same naming is specified in the NMEA standards.

clip_image004

When an RS-485 network is in an idle state, all nodes are in listen (receive) mode. Under this condition there are no active drivers on the network. All drivers are tri-stated. Without anything driving the network, the state of the A and B line is unknown. If the voltage level at the receiver’s A and B inputs is less than ±200mV the logic level at the output of the receivers will be the value of the last bit received. In order to maintain the proper idle voltage state, bias resistors must be applied to force the data lines to the idle condition.

Terminal Blocks

To make it easy to connect your RS-485 device in the field to a Raveon data radio modem, we off a simple screw-down terminal block.  It has a male DB9 connector on it, so it plugs directly into the M7 radio modem.

TermBlockMale9

The field termination terminal block connector show above is Raveon part number DB9M-TB. Contact sales@raveon.com to order this part.  Customers purchasing the M7 radio modem with the RS-485 option should also order this field termination block because it makes installation very easy.

Radio Manager

If you are going to use Raveon’s RadioManager software to configure your product or communicate with it, the RS-488 interface must be configured as RS-485 SIMPLEX.  Duplex RS-485 will not work with RadioManger. When you configure your data radio modem to operate in RS-485 mode, you should also turn off “character echo”.  The ATE0 command disables charactor echo in the command mode.  Echo must be off for RadioManger to talk to a modem using RS-485.

RadioManager versions newer than 5.4 will automatically turn off character echo if they detect that the connected radio is using RS-485 to communicate with RadioManger.

Simplify System Design with Automatic Message Delineation

TDMA systems are often used to send consistently timed, periodic data. In these situations, system designers face the challenge of adjusting the rate data is sent to the modem to match the TDMA parameters. With Automatic Message Delineation, this constraint is removed. Instead, the modem is allowed to detect message boundaries and send only the most recent data message when TDMA airtime is available.

Under standard operation, TDMA modems buffer all data received and transmit as much as possible when time slots are available. With Automatic Message Delineation, only a single message will be buffered at a time and the most recent message will be sent over-the-air when a time slot is available.

Messages are detected using inter-character timeout. Characters that are received in rapid succession are grouped into a single message, while longer spaces between characters create an automatic message boundary. Upon reception of a new message, previously received data is cleared and the new message is queued for transmission. Message data is also cleared upon transmission.

Automatic Message Delineation automatically creates new messages and only sends the most recent data.

Automatic Message Delineation automatically creates new messages and only sends the most recent data.

To enable Automatic Message Delineation, issue the command MSGDEL 1 to the modem. To control inter-character timing, the ATR3 setting may be used. The default inter-character timeout of 20 milliseconds is usually sufficient for most systems. Automatic Message Delineation is only in effect when TDMA is enabled.

For more advanced system designs, the WMX protocol should be considered.

D70 [RC1] Software Release Notes (M7 Series)

New Features:

  • An upgrade detection engine has been added to the radio. Upgrades to D70 or later will process upgrade steps automatically, keeping functionality as identical as possible. Operation should always be verified after upgrade.
  • The CONFIG command is now supported as a user-accessible command to retrieve all radio configuration
  • The UJ (military UHF) band is now supported
  • GSV messages are now fully supported. [GX radios only]
  • Improved accuracy of accelerometer and angle readings [GX radios only]

 

 

Connecting an M7-GX to a Raymarine Multifunction Display

The M7-GX series of GPS transponders may be directly connected to any Raymarine A, C, E or G series display.  All of these Raymarine displays have at least one NMEA-0183 port. This allows them to be used with Raveon’s RavTrack series of GPS radio transponders to make a complete GPS tracking system. For this article, the Raymarine E80 product will be used as an example but the other models in the Raymarine line have similar integration steps.

Raymarine E80 Map

When connected to the M7-GX GPS radio transponder, the E80 map will show the location of the user plus the location of all other transponders within radio range.  This unique feature allows a user to quickly, easily and inexpensively make a portable AVL system for tracking cars, trucks, race cars, construction equipment or anything Raveon’s M7-GX transponder may be installed on.

The Raymarine displays have a built-in interface for NMEA 0183 devices, a serial data port intended for RS422/RS232 operation. The Raymarine E80 supports RS232 levels on the communications lines as well as the RS422 levels. Since RS422 was designed for differential signaling, there are pairs of signal wires instead of a single-ended ground that is shared between the Rx and Tx lines. For an RS232 protocol, one can tie the two negative wires of the NMEA 0183 signal pairs together to act as the ground.

The NMEA 0183 defaults to 4800 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, no handshake (4800-8-N-1).  It is used to exchange way-point and other information between displays, GPS devices, and transponders.

When Raveon’s M7-GX transponder is connected to the Raymarine E80 using the NMEA 0183 connection, the GPS radio transponder can put icons on the screen of the E80. As the transponder receives updated positions from other vehicles, it updates the position of the tracked vehicle icons on the E80 display.

NMEA 0183

Raymarine E80 Wiring

The Raymarine E80 has the 5-pin NMEA 0183 connector shown to the right, located on the rear of the unit. NMEA 0183 is a common communications format for marine applications. See the following diagram for general wiring connections.

R08005

The recommended cable for interfacing to this NMEA 0183 port is the R08004 NMEA cable. It is a 5-wire cable with an Rx pair (differential + and -), Tx pair (differential + and -) and drain wire (unused). For the case of the E80-M7 system, the only used connections will be the white wire (NMEA input +) and the green wire (NMEA input common). These NMEA 0183 cables come in various forms so make sure to verify that the correct wire pairs (Rx, Tx or both) are included in the cable assembly before purchasing. Here is a picture of the full cable assembly with both Rx and Tx wires:

Wiring the Serial Cable

The E80 NMEA 0183 port must be connected to the M7-GX GPS transponder. This connection will allow the M7-GX to put icons on the screen of the E80 display, showing the location of other tracked vehicles.  The M7-GX GPS transponder uses a 9-pin DB9 as it’s serial connection. Solder the E80 data cable wires onto a DB9 connector and plug the DB9 into the M7 transponder as shown below:

db9     NMEA 0183 connector

Connect the white wire (NMEA input +, pin 2) on the R08004 cable to the serial data output (pin 2) on M7-GX DB9 connector. Then, connect the green wire (NMEA input -, pin 1) on the R08004 cable to the ground of the M7-GX DB9 connector. You do not need to connect the brown, yellow or braid wires on the R08004 cable so you can trim them off if desired.

Configuring the E80

Verify that the serial data communications are set to 4800 baud-8-N-1 on the E80.

Configuring the M7 GX Transponder

Raveon has a designed the M7 GX transponder to work with the E80 display or any other NMEA 0183 display that can accept the “$GPWPL” NMEA message.   The $GPWPL is an industry standard message that many GPS displays interpret as a waypoint command.  The M7 GX outputs this $GPWPL message to put icons on the screen of the E80, and to move the icons around on its screen.

To configure the M7 transponder to output the $GPWPL message, set the M7 GX to GPS mode 4.  To do this, put it into the configuration mode by send the +++ into the serial port.  The M7 will respond with an OK.  Type GPS 4 and press enter to put it into GPS 4 mode.  GPS 4 is the mode that causes the M7 GX to output $GPWPL messages whenever it receives a status/position message over the air
.

Table: Volts to dBm to Watts

Table of effective power in dBm and watts given RMS voltage or peak-to-peak voltage.

 

Volts (RMS)   Volts (PEP) dBm (50ohm) Watts (50ohms)
1.000 2.83 -16.990 0.020
1.200 3.39 -15.406 0.029
1.440 4.07 -13.822 0.041
1.728 4.89 -12.239 0.060
2.074 5.87 -10.655 0.086
2.488 7.04 -9.072 0.124
2.986 8.45 -7.488 0.178
3.583 10.1 -5.904 0.257
4.300 12.2 -4.321 0.370
5.160 14.6 -2.737 0.532
6.192 17.5 -1.153 0.767
7.430 21.0 0.430 1.104
8.916 25.2 2.014 1.59
10.699 30.3 3.597 2.29
12.839 36.3 5.181 3.30
15.407 43.6 6.765 4.75
18.488 52.3 8.348 6.84
22.186 62.8 9.932 9.84
26.623 75.3 11.516 14.2
31.948 90.4 13.099 20.4
38.338 108 14.683 29.4
46.005 130 16.266 42.3
55.206 156 17.850 61.0
66.247 187 19.434 87.8
79.497 225 21.017 126.4
95.396 270 22.601 182.0

Table: RF Power Density

RF Power Density vs Distance

The RF power density at any distance from a transmitter that is radiating RF power will depend upon the antenna gain, power into the antenna, and the distance from the antenna.  The table below illustrates haw fast the RF power power density drops off given certain distances from the radiating antenna and the power into the antenna.

11 meters from a 125 watt transmitter is about the same RF power density as 1 meter from a 2 watt transmitter.

 

Power (dBm) Power (Watts) Antenna Gain (dBi) Antenna Gain Factor Distance (meters) PSD(W/m2)
20 0.10 0 1 0.1 0.796
20 0.10 0 1 0.5 0.032
20 0.10 0 1 1 0.008
20 0.10 0 1 3 0.001
20 0.10 0 1 10 0.000
30 1.00 0 1 0.1 7.962
30 1.00 0 1 0.5 0.318
30 1.00 0 1 1 0.080
30 1.00 0 1 3 0.009
30 1.00 0 1 10 0.001
33 2.00 0 1 0.1 15.886
33 2.00 0 1 0.5 0.635
33 2.00 0 1 1 0.159
33 2.00 0 1 3 0.018
33 2.00 0 1 10 0.002
36 3.98 0 1 0.1 31.696
36 3.98 0 1 0.5 1.268
36 3.98 0 1 1 0.317
36 3.98 0 1 3 0.035
36 3.98 0 1 10 0.003
42 15.85 0 1 0.1 126.186
42 15.85 0 1 0.5 5.047
42 15.85 0 1 1 1.262
42 15.85 0 1 3 0.140
42 15.85 0 1 10 0.013
51 125.89 0 1 0.1 1002.329
51 125.89 0 1 0.5 40.093
51 125.89 0 1 1 10.023
51 125.89 0 1 3 1.114
51 125.89 0 1 10 0.100
54 251.19 0 1 0.1 1999.910
54 251.19 0 1 0.5 79.996
54 251.19 0 1 1 19.999
54 251.19 0 1 3 2.222
54 251.19 0 1 11 0.165

Table: Miles to Kilometers

Miles to Kilometers Conversion Table

 

Miles km Miles km Miles km Miles km Miles km Miles km Miles km
0.1 0.16 3.1 4.99 6.1 9.82 9.1 14.65 12.1 19.47 15.1 24.30 18.1 29.13
0.2 0.32 3.2 5.15 6.2 9.98 9.2 14.81 12.2 19.63 15.2 24.46 18.2 29.29
0.3 0.48 3.3 5.31 6.3 10.14 9.3 14.97 12.3 19.79 15.3 24.62 18.3 29.45
0.4 0.64 3.4 5.47 6.4 10.30 9.4 15.13 12.4 19.96 15.4 24.78 18.4 29.61
0.5 0.80 3.5 5.63 6.5 10.46 9.5 15.29 12.5 20.12 15.5 24.94 18.5 29.77
0.6 0.97 3.6 5.79 6.6 10.62 9.6 15.45 12.6 20.28 15.6 25.11 18.6 29.93
0.7 1.13 3.7 5.95 6.7 10.78 9.7 15.61 12.7 20.44 15.7 25.27 18.7 30.09
0.8 1.29 3.8 6.12 6.8 10.94 9.8 15.77 12.8 20.60 15.8 25.43 18.8 30.26
0.9 1.45 3.9 6.28 6.9 11.10 9.9 15.93 12.9 20.76 15.9 25.59 18.9 30.42
1 1.61 4 6.44 7 11.27 10 16.09 13 20.92 16 25.75 19 30.58
1.1 1.77 4.1 6.60 7.1 11.43 10 16.25 13.1 21.08 16.1 25.91 19.1 30.74
1.2 1.93 4.2 6.76 7.2 11.59 10 16.42 13.2 21.24 16.2 26.07 19.2 30.90
1.3 2.09 4.3 6.92 7.3 11.75 10 16.58 13.3 21.40 16.3 26.23 19.3 31.06
1.4 2.25 4.4 7.08 7.4 11.91 10 16.74 13.4 21.57 16.4 26.39 19.4 31.22
1.5 2.41 4.5 7.24 7.5 12.07 11 16.90 13.5 21.73 16.5 26.55 19.5 31.38
1.6 2.57 4.6 7.40 7.6 12.23 11 17.06 13.6 21.89 16.6 26.72 19.6 31.54
1.7 2.74 4.7 7.56 7.7 12.39 11 17.22 13.7 22.05 16.7 26.88 19.7 31.70
1.8 2.90 4.8 7.72 7.8 12.55 11 17.38 13.8 22.21 16.8 27.04 19.8 31.87
1.9 3.06 4.9 7.89 7.9 12.71 11 17.54 13.9 22.37 16.9 27.20 19.9 32.03
2 3.22 5 8.05 8 12.87 11 17.70 14 22.53 17 27.36 20 32.19
2.1 3.38 5.1 8.21 8.1 13.04 11 17.86 14.1 22.69 17.1 27.52 20.1 32.35
2.2 3.54 5.2 8.37 8.2 13.20 11 18.02 14.2 22.85 17.2 27.68 20.2 32.51
2.3 3.70 5.3 8.53 8.3 13.36 11 18.19 14.3 23.01 17.3 27.84 20.3 32.67
2.4 3.86 5.4 8.69 8.4 13.52 11 18.35 14.4 23.17 17.4 28.00 20.4 32.83
2.5 4.02 5.5 8.85 8.5 13.68 12 18.51 14.5 23.34 17.5 28.16 20.5 32.99
2.6 4.18 5.6 9.01 8.6 13.84 12 18.67 14.6 23.50 17.6 28.32 20.6 33.15
2.7 4.35 5.7 9.17 8.7 14.00 12 18.83 14.7 23.66 17.7 28.49 20.7 33.31
2.8 4.51 5.8 9.33 8.8 14.16 12 18.99 14.8 23.82 17.8 28.65 20.8 33.47
2.9 4.67 5.9 9.50 8.9 14.32 12 19.15 14.9 23.98 17.9 28.81 20.9 33.64
3 4.83 6 9.66 9 14.48 12 19.31 15 24.14 18 28.97 21 33.80

Table: Coax cable attenuation

Coax cable attenuation.

All coax cable looses power.  The amount of power loss in a coax cable depends upon the length of the cable, the type of cable, and the frequency it is being used at.

The following tables are helpful for predicting the amount of signal loss through a coax cable.  For example, if you use a 50 foot section of LMR-400 cable in your data radio modem system that operates a 450MH, you will loose 1.6dB.

Cable Group Attenuation in dB per 100 feet Outer Diameter (inches)
30 50 100 150 450 1000 2400
LMR-100A® 3.9 5.1 7.2 8.9 15.8 24.1 38.0
LMR-200® 1.8 2.3 3.2 4.0 7.0 10.4 16.5 0.195
LMR-240 Ultra® 1.3 1.7 2.9 3.6 5.3 9.5 12.7 0.240
LMR-240® 1.3 1.7 2.4 3.0 5.2 7.9 12.7 0.240
LMR-400 Ultra® 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.5 3.2 5.0 7.9 0.405
LMR-400® 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.5 2.7 4.1 6.6 0.405
RG-174 5.5 6.6 8.8 10.3 18.1 27.4 43.0 0.100
RG-213 1.0 1.5 2.1 2.8 4.4 7.1 12.0 0.405
RG-214 1.2 1.6 1.9 2.4 5.1 8.0 13.7 0.405
RG-316 4.3 5.6 7.9 4.4 17.2 26.1 45.0 0.110
RG-58A/U 2.5 4.1 5.3 6.1 10.6 24.0 38.9 0.195
RG-8/U FOAM 1.0 1.2 1.8 2.4 4.4 7.1 12.0 0.400
RG-8X 2.0 2.1 3.0 4.7 8.6 12.9 21.6 0.242
RG218/U 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 3.8 6.4 0.870

 

Cable Group Attenuation in dB per 100 meters Outer Diameter (mm)
30 50 100 150 450 1000 2400
LMR-100A® 12.5 16.3 23.0 28.5 50.6 77.1 121.6
LMR-200® 5.8 7.4 10.2 12.8 22.4 33.3 52.8 4.95
LMR-240 Ultra® 4.2 5.4 9.3 11.5 17.0 30.4 40.6 6.10
LMR-240® 4.2 5.4 7.7 9.6 16.6 25.3 40.6 6.10
LMR-400 Ultra® 2.6 3.4 4.8 4.8 10.2 15.8 25.3 10.29
LMR-400® 2.2 2.9 4.0 4.8 8.6 13.2 21.1 10.29
RG-174 17.6 21.1 28.2 33.0 57.9 87.7 137.6 2.54
RG-213 3.3 4.8 6.7 9.0 14.1 22.6 38.4 10.29
RG-214 3.8 5.1 6.1 7.7 16.3 25.6 43.8 10.29
RG-316 13.8 17.9 25.3 14.1 55.0 83.5 144.0 2.79
RG-58A/U 8.0 13.1 17.0 19.5 33.9 76.8 124.5 4.95
RG-8/U FOAM 3.3 3.8 5.8 7.7 14.1 22.7 38.4 10.16
RG-8X 6.4 6.7 9.6 15.0 27.5 41.3 69.1 6.15
RG218/U 1.3 1.8 2.6 3.3 6.5 12.2 20.5 22.10