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220MHZ Band Antennas

VHF and UHF antennas are easy to find, but 220MHz band antennas for data radio modem are more difficult to find.  This Tech Blog article provides links and ideas for sourcing 220MHz mobile antennas and 220MHz base station antennas.

1.   Overview

Raveon produces data radio modems at 200 MHz for Machine-to-machine (M2M) and SCADA applications.  Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) antennas for this band can tuned to 220MHz.  This note details the process for the tuning of VHF 220 MHz antenna.  Raveon’s DART base stations and M8/TK8/TK9 series data radio modem products are available in this band.

2.   COTS Antennas

There are many different choices for 220MHz band antennas . This article identifies a few antennas suitable for use with 220 MHz radio modems.

New-Tronics Antenna Corporation

RX-220, 3.4 dB, 5/8 wave magnet-mount mobile antenna:
(http://www.new-tronics.com/main/html/mobile_uhf___vhf.html)

MX-270, 2.4dB VHF/ 4 dB UHF   magnet-mount VHF – must be cut down to resonate at 220MHz.
(http://www.new-tronics.com/main/html/mobile_mx_series_uhf___vhf.html)

Comet

HT-224, 1.3dBi 1/4 wave
(http://www.cometantenna.com/products.php?CatID=1&famID=1&childID=2)

This antenna may be available at their distributor, Ham Radio Outlet.

22ANT

Trimming an Antenna

The test equipment for tuning includes a spectrum analyzer, such as HP 8591E with tracking generator and a directional coupler, such as Narda 3000-10 and suitable connectors/adaptors. The antenna length can be adjusted by trimming the length of the rod of the antennas. Loosen the lock-screw on the base of the antenna, remove the antenna rod, and trim it so that the antenna resonates on the desired frequency. Trim a little, re-install, re-measure resonant frequency, and repeat.

The lowest standing wave ratio point displayed on the spectrum analyzer will be the frequency the antenna is tuned to.

For 220MHz, the lengths of the antennas shown above are 706 mm for the RX-220 and 524 mm for the MX-270.  The HT-224 from Comet has fixed length which is not adjustable.

sa221

Bit Error Rate Testing

With the introduction of RadioManager 5.8, RadioManager can be used to test bit-error and packet error performance of a radio link.

Bit-Error-Rate (BER) is not directly measured because RadioManager uses packets to test the link, but BER can be derived from packet-error-rate.

Raveon calls these types of tests “BERT” for Bit Error Rate Test.

To activate the BERT feature:

  1. Connect RadioManger to the radio you wish to test
  2. From the View -> BERT menu select BERT.
  3. Select the data pattern to send.
  4. Set the Interval to the number of milliseconds between packet transmissions.
  5. Click the START button, and RadioManager will begin sending the test packets to the device connected to the communication channel.

The BERT screen is show below.

BERT Screen

BERT Screen

You may select from a number of stock messages, for create your own by typing text into the second window from the top. Normally, RadioManager will put a packet sequence number at the beginning of every packet it sends, but this may be suppressed by unchecking the Add Sequence Number check box.

When running, RadioManager will automatically send a packet at the interval specified in the “Interval” box.

On the bottom of the BERT window are the communication statistics.  BERT counts how many packets it sends, and how many it receives.  It it sends more than it receives, it calculates the loss percentage and displays that.

To do a simple end-to-end link test, connect RadioManager to one radio, and on the other far-end radio modem, plug in a “loop-back dongle”.  For radio modem systems with DB9 serial ports, the loop-back dongle should connect pins 2 and 3 of the DB9 causing every byte that comes in the mode, to pass back to the transmit buffer and be re-send back over the air.

Below is a picture of a DB9 connection plugged into a Raveon M7 data radio modem.  Pins 2 and 3 are shorted together to do the BERT test.

Loop Back Connection

Loop Back Connection

 

Configure the two radios in the BERT test to communicate with each other:

  1. Same frequency
  2. Same IDs or set the ATMK netmask to 0000 to ignore the IDs
  3. Over-the-air data rate on both modems must be the same.
  4. Over-the-air protocol on both modems must be the same.

 

 

 

Testing M7 Data Radio Modem

This article describes how to do a functional test of the Raveon M7 data radio modem.  The M7 is a UHF or VHF radio modem, and using Raveon’s free RadioManger software M7 data radio modems can be quickly tested/validated ensuring they are communicating well. The tests described in this article will be useful for:

  1. Capturing the configuration / settings of the radio modem to a file.
  2. Verifying the radio modem is transmitting the correct RF power output level.
  3. The frequency of the radio modem is correctly set.
  4. The serial port parameters are correct
  5. The over-the-air baud rate is correct and compatible with the system the modem will be used in.
  6. Verifying and recording the DC power consumption
  7. Determining the packet-error-rate on the bench or in the field.

A quick functional test is HIGHLY recommended on every radio modem before it is deployed in the field.  These same functional tests can also be used to bench-test a radio modem that is suspected to be damaged or operating improperly. A lot of time can be saved by catching human errors, configuration problems, and component failures before the unit is deployed in the field.  Below is a diagram of how to connect two radio modems to perform the test.  Radio A is the radio to test, but this setup will validate that both radio A and B are communicating well.

M7TestSetupA

 

Radio Modem Test Configuration

Remember: Out of the box all Raveon data radio modems just work.  Connect power, serial ports, antennas, and they will communicate. Raveon tests 100% of all radios shipped to our customer for full functionality, plus verifies communication reliability.  Raveon also provides a customization service for customers who would like their radio modems custom-configured. When you receive modems from Raveon, you know they work together, and if you setup this test, you will quickly verify this.  It is good practice to start with this verification, then make any modification to the configuration of the radio modem’s parameters that you need to, and then re-do the test to verify that your new configuration works as expected.

Step 1 – Setup the Test Equipment

Begin by installing RadioManger onto a computer that has an RS232 serial port.  If the computer does not have an RS232 serial port, then use a USB serial bridge to convert a USB port to serial.

Connect the radios to test as show above in the Radio Modem Test Configuration diagram. The RF attenuators are typically 40dB pads. They avoid transmitting large amounts of RF power on the air. For this test, the radios are placed on the same test bench. Antennas should be connected to the attenuators, or directly connect the two attenuators together with a coax cable.

“Radio A” is the radio modem device under test (DUT).  The DUT is the unit that will be tested, recorded, and verified that it is operating properly.

“Radio B” in the test above should be a known good working radio modem, properly configured to the specifications of the system.

Step 2 – Configure the Device Under Test (DUT)

The M7 data radio modem has a lot of user-configurable parameters.  All commands and parameters are documented in the product’s Technical Manual available <here>. The most common parameters that will be configured on a radio modem are:

A. Frequency  (ATFX, ATFR, ATFT )
B. ID  (ATMY)
C. Serial port baud rate (ATBD)
D. RF power level  (ATPO)
E. Over-the-air baud rate  (ATR2)
F. Destination ID  (TOID)
G. Address mask  (ATMK)

Refer to the technical manual for information on how to set configure these parameters, and any others you wish to configure.

Step 3 – Record the Settings

There are two easy ways you can record the DUT’s configuration to a file.  1) Have RadioManager read them, and store them in the .xdat format.  2)display them using the config command, and copy/paste the displayed configuration to a text file.

Using RadioManager:

  • Turn the DC power supply on.
  • Start RadioManager
  • Select the serial port on RadioManager that the DUT is connected to. Set RadioManager’s serial port settings to match the DUT’s serial port settings.
  • Click the “Discover Radio” button.
  • Once RadioManger has discovered and connected to the DUT, click “Read Settings from Radio”
  • Once the settings have been read into RadioManager, click File > Save Settings  and store them to the .xdat file.

At a later time, you can recall these stetting, and load them back into the radio or into another radio.

Storing the Configuration into a Text File:

  • Turn the DC power supply on.
  • Start RadioManager (or any terminal program such as Terraterm or Hyperterminal)
  • Select the serial port on RadioManager that the DUT is connected to. Set RadioManager’s serial port settings to match the DUT’s serial port settings.
  • Click the “Discover Radio” button.
  • Once RadioManger has discovered and connected to the DUT, click on the terminal window in the lower right corner of RadioManager.
  • In the terminal window, type the phrase “CONFIG” without the quotes, and press enter.
  • The DUT will output all of its configuration settings, and they will appear in the terminal window.
  • Type ctrl A then ctrl C to copy them to the clipboard of the PC.
  • Open a text file using notepad, word, or some text editor, and paste the clipboard into the file.
  • Save the file

Step 4 – Electrical Tests

RF Power:

  • Turn the DC power supply on.
  • Start RadioManager
  • Click the “Discover Radio” button.
  • Once connected and communicating with the DUT, click on the terminal window in RadioManager
  • Type ATTD 3 to force the Radio A transmitter to key up sending random data.
  • Adjust the RF power to the desired level with the ATPO command.
  • Measure and record the RF power level.
  • Measure and record the DC current draw as seen on the amp-meter of the DC power supply.
  • Press the enter key to un-key the Radio A transmitter.

 

Character Echo:

Note, this test can only be done when Radio B is also configured to communicate with Radio B.  The RX and TX frequencies must be compatible.  The IDs and address masks must be set so that A and B can communicate.  On many systems, this is the normal configuration, but on some systems, radio modems only communicate one-way or with only one other radio modem.  Plan this test so that Radio B can communicate properly with Radio A.

  • Turn the DC power supply on.
  • Start RadioManager
  • Click the “Discover Radio” button.
  • Once connected and communicating with the DUT, click on the terminal window in RadioManager
  • Type any character on the keyboard.  Radio A’s STAT LED should blink red every time a character is typed, indicating the character is transmitted over-the-air.
  • Radio B’s STAT LED should blink green indicating it received the character.
  • Because of the loop-back wire on pins 2-3 of Radio B, Radio B will also transmit back the character to Radio A.
  • When Radio A receives the looped-back character, it will output out of its serial port and it will appear in the RadioManager terminal window.

 

Packet Error Rate:

Note, this test can only be done when Radio B is also configured to communicate with Radio B.  The RX and TX frequencies must be compatible.  The IDs and address masks must be set so that A and B can communicate.  On many systems, this is the normal configuration, but on some systems, radio modems only communicate one-way or with only one other radio modem.  Plan this test so that Radio B can communicate properly with Radio A.

On the bench, the packet error rate will be zero.  You may put Radio A on the real antenna to be used in the system, and Radio B at a remote site in the system, just to test the error rate to the remote site as the system will operate.

  • Turn the DC power supply on.
  • Start RadioManager
  • Click the “Discover Radio” button.
  • Once connected and communicating with the DUT, click on View > Expert to put RadioManger into the Expert mode.
  • Click View > BERT to bring up the packet error test window.
  • Set the interval to the desired test rate. 1000mS is typical for the short ABC test packet.
  • Set the test packet to use.
  • Click “Start”
  • Radio A’s stat LED will blink at the packet rate, each time it transmits.
  • The BERT window will count transmitted packets and received packets, and display the statistics.
  • Let the test run as long as you wish, record the results if desired.

 

 

 

Improving Streaming Mode Communication Range

For most applications, Raveon suggests operating the M7 VHF/UHF data radio modems in the “Packet Mode”.  In packet Mode, the radios verify the data is error-free using a 16-bit CRC.  They can be over-the-air Pinged.  The packets IDs and can be repeated.   But, in certain circumstances, such as when low-latency is required between transmit data and receive data, the streaming mode in the M7 data radios can be enabled.

In streaming mode, there are many configuration options that will affect the performance of the system.  Following is a list of some things to consider when using Streaming Mode in the radio modem.

  1. In streaming mode, the M7 data radio modems will very often output an extra few byte of random data noise at the end of a packet. The weaker the signal, the more likely the extra noise bytes are appended.
  2. On a polled radio system, consider the time-out-delays carefully. To account for serial port delay, T/R turn around, and a few noise bytes you may want to add a little extra to the time-out.
  3. As always, use the best antennas possible, and get them as high as practical. This may be a huge improvement to the link margin.
  4. Make sure all the antennas physically tuned to the right frequency.
  5. The DC power supplies must be electrically clean and able to supply enough power?  12V at32 amps is the minimum, we recommend 60 watt power cubes.
  6. To help measure link-margin, the ATRS command tells you the signal strength in dBm of the last packet received.
  7. To improve reception reliability with weak signals, configure the data radio modems to send longer pre-amble patterns.  If you have them send a 1-3 extra bytes of preamble, it will increase the reliability of the link, especially in the fringe areas.  ATR5 command sets the number of bytes of preamble transmitted before each transmission.  Normally they are set to 5 bytes, and you could try 7 or 8 and see if it helps.
  8. Some systems will work better if the Carrier Detect signal is used in streaming mode.  If ATRF is set to 1, then the modem will only try to decode over-the-air messages if the RF signal strength is above a fixed level set by ATCD.  When you have good link-margin (strong signals) this works great, and will allow a streaming mode radio to pick-up 100/100 messages.
    But… if the signal is weak, or below the carrier detect threshold, then it makes the modem miss data that it could have decoded because the modem is capable of demodulating data over-the—air on very weak signals.

RadioManager 5.8.1 Released

RadioManager 5.8.1 is now available for download! If you’ve installed RadioManager before, you already have all the dependencies and you can simply download the executable file and run it. If you are trying it for the first time, download the installer now!

New Features 5.8.1 (January 2014)

Bit Error Rate Testing

Added Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT).  By sending test packets, one can extrapolate the effective bit error rate.  This test
is actually a packet error rate test, but it can be used to measure BERT.
To activate the BERT feature:

  1. Connect RadioManger to the radio you wish to test
  2. From the View -> BERT menu select BERT.
  3. Select the data pattern to send.
  4. Set the Interval to the number of milliseconds between packet transmissions.
  5. Click the START button, and RadioManager will begin sending the test packets to the device connected to the communication channel.

Version 5.8.1 added support for the M8S radio modem module as well as the M8T and M8R versions of it.

New Features 5.6.1 (October 2013)

RadioManager 5.4.1 is now available for download! If you’ve installed RadioManager before, you already have all the dependencies and you can simply download the executable file and run it. If you are trying it for the first time, download the installer now!

Handshaking Line Status and Control

You can now easily see the status of the input handshaking lines and directly set the value of the output lines.

RadioManager allows direct visualization and control of RS-232 handshaking lines

Send Files

It’s now possible to transmit a text file to the radio by dragging the file on to the terminal. Doing so will launch the new “Send File” dialog, which will remain open allowing repeated transmissions of the same file.

File transfer timing can be fine-tuned to support executing command scripts or data transmission tests.

RadioManager can send a file line-by-line with the ability to fine tune transfer timing.

Improved, Responsive Terminal

The terminal has been overhauled to operate smoothly and intuitively. Automatic scrolling works smoothly and is automatically disabled when text is selected. Upon typing or moving the cursor to the bottom of the screen, automatic scrolling will be re-enabled.

RadioManager's Terminal mode can be used as your everyday terminal.

Improved RS-485 Simplex Support

RS-485 simplex support has been improved. RadioManager now automatically detects simplex mode and adapts its radio interaction accordingly.

 

WMX Code Examples

This article describes various software coding techniques to implement the WMX protocol.

Binary Encoding the WMX Data Field

If you are useing WMX to send 8-bit binary data, then you must encode the data as described in the WMX protocol document.  If you are sending 7-bit ASCII data, or your data will never have the ASCII charactor 255, 3, or 4 in it, then you do not need to encode the data, and yo umay simply embed your data in the data field of the WMX packet.

Visual Basic Encoding Example

Function BinaryEncodeWMX(ByRef bdata() AsChar, ByRef ByteCount AsInteger) As Array

‘ WMX encodes the charactors 0x03 and 0x04 so they never appear in the data
Dim T(1000) AsChar
Dim Y AsInteger = 0
Dim X AsInteger
For X = 0 To ByteCount – 1
If bdata(X) = Chr(255) Or bdata(X) = Chr(3) Or bdata(X) = Chr(4) Or bdata(X) = Chr(13) Then
                T(Y) = Chr(255)
                Y = Y + 1
                T(Y) = Chr(255 – Asc(bdata(X)))
Else
                T(Y) = bdata(X)
EndIf
            Y = Y + 1
Next
BinaryEncodeWMX = T
ByteCount = Y
EndFunction
 

Binary Decoding the WMX Data Field

Visual Basic Bindary Decoding Example

‘ Get the data, converting back to binary. ETXpos points to the end of the data array, SOTpos points to the beginning.
‘ WMX is a string containing the binary encoded WMX bytes as embedded inside the WMX packet.
x = SOTpos + 1

Y  = 0
While x < (ETXpos – SOTpos)
                Ch1 = Mid(WMX, x, 1)
If Ch1 = 255 Then
                    x = x + 1
Ch1 = Mid(WMX, x, 1)
‘ decode the binary encoding
                    NewWMX.DataBytes(Y) = 255 – Ch1
Else
                    NewWMX.DataBytes(Y) = Ch1
EndIf
          x = x + 1
          Y = Y + 1
EndWhile
NewWMX.ByteCount = Y

 C Bindary Decoding Example

// ***************************************************************************
// Move the data from a WMX buffer over to the txbits
// Remove any binary encoding.
// User Sends Actual data over-the-air
// 0xFF 0x00 0xFF
// 0xFF 0xFC 0x03
// 0xFF 0xFB 0x04
// byte_count is the number of bytes in the WMX data portion of the WMX frame
// Return the numberof bytes to transmit over the air
// ****************************************************************************
int move_wmxbuff(char buf_num, int byte_count, int data_location){
int x = 0;
int ret_val = 0;
unsigned char c1;
unsigned char c2;
 
while ((x < byte_count) && ( x < MAX_PACKET) && ( x < WMX_BUFFER_SIZE)){
c1 = wmx_tx_framebuff[buf_num][data_location]; // get the byte
data_location++;
c2 = wmx_tx_framebuff[buf_num][data_location]; // get the next byte
if (c1 == WMX_BINARY_CODE){
 // We detected a binary flag, so decode it.
c1 = WMX_BINARY_CODE – c2; // decode it
// Move past the second byte
data_location++;
x++;
}
txbits[txbit_put] = c1; // move the byte to txbits
txbit_put++;
ret_val++;
x++;
}
return ret_val;
}

 

 

 

 

 

Optimize over-the-air bandwidth usage with WMX modem status

Raveon’s WMX protocol is the preferred way to communicate over-the-air in advanced or tightly-integrated configurations. As of version D4 of the protocol, it is now possible to closely monitor message queuing, transmission and acknowledgement. This allows bandwidth usage to be optimized for the communication application.

Bit 5 in the WMX control field indicates whether the modem should provide additional message information back to the sender. Setting this bit in a message sent to a modem will cause two messages sent back to the receiver:

  1. A message indicating whether the message was accepted and queued (“Q”) or was rejected due to a full buffer or other condition (“N”)
  2. A message indicating that the message has been transmitted (“T”), processed locally as a command (“L”) or was flushed from the buffer and not processed (“F”)

The messages will indicate the sequence number of the message whose status is being provided.

Number of bytes

Field Name

Data

1

Message Status

ASCII Character Indicating a Message Status. It will be one of:

‘Q’ – Message has been accepted and queued for transmission

‘N’ – Message was not accepted for transmission and has been dropped

‘T’ – Message was sent over-the-air and has been fully processed

‘L’ – Message was processed locally (commands to the local radio)

‘F’ – Message was queued but subsequently flushed and not transmitted

1

Status Separator (,)

1-3

Original Sequence Number

The sequence number of the original message (the message whose status is being provided). ASCII Decimal formatted.

1

Status Separator (,)

1-4

Message TOID

The destination address of the original message (the message whose status is being provided). ASCII Hex formatted.

This information provides insight into bandwidth usage that allows optimization for the particular communication scenario. For instance, an installation using TDMA will queue data to be sent until the modems transmission slot is available. If only a single message or a set amount of data should be queued, the application can wait for the “T”, “L” or “F” messages before providing another message to send over-the-air.

Acknowledgement messages received by the modem also generate special WMX packets. When an acknowledgement is received, a message with frame type 3 will be output from the modem. This message will indicate which sequence number was acknowledged by the remote radio. With a combination of the queue full (“N”), transmit (“T”) and acknowledgement messages, it is possible to send bulk data continuously over-the-air as well as re-transmit any data that is not acknowledged.

Example code for interfacing with our radios using WMX can be found in our public code repository.

For advice on your own system implementation from a Raveon engineer, contact us today.

Interfacing RS-485 to M7 Series Data Radio Modems

RS-485 is a two-wire connection, with the pair of wires transmitting and receiving data. With the RS-485 feature enabled (ATIO 2 command), the 9-pin serial I/O connector on the front of the Raveon data radio modem model M5 and M7 will be put into the RS-485 mode of operation.  The serial I/O connector is a female 9-pin D-subminiature connector having the following pin configuration.

DB9

Front-view of DB-9 connector on M7 data radio modem (female)

The following table lists the pin functions for the input and output pins on the DB9 connector when it is in the RS-485 mode.

Pin # Name Dir Function Level / Specification
1 Do not connect Do not connect this pin to anything.
2 B (-) I/O B Inverting RS-485 data in line
3 Out – out Z Connect to pin 2
4 A (+) I/O A Non-inverting RS-485 data out line
5 GND Ground Connect to earth ground.
6 Do not connect Do not connect this pin to anything.
7 Out + out Y Connect to pin 4
8
9 Vin In/Out DC Power DC Power in or out if unit is powered using DC in jack.

 

The RS485 differential data line consists of two pins, A and B.

B  TxD-/RxD- aka inverting pin which is negative (compared to B) when the line is idle.
A  TxD+/RxD+ aka non-inverting pin which is positive (compared to A) when the line is idle.

Configuring The M7 Radio Modem

To configure the M7 modem for RS-485 operation, use the ATIO x command. ATIO 2 sets the serial port for standard RS-485, full duplex. ATIO 3 sets the serial port for RS-485 simplex mode. In most cases, RS-485 simplex is preferred (ATIO 3).  Also, turn off character echo using the ATE0 command.   If echo is on, communications will be garbled when the radio is in the command mode.

In simplex RS-485 mode, the M7’s serial data receiver is internally disabled whenever it sends a character out the serial port, so that it will not receive its own data. For most application use the RS485 simplex mode, ATIO 3. If you are using two M7 modems with RS485 on both units, you must use the simplex RS485 mode instead of the duplex RS485 mode, or the modems will enter an infinite loop-back condition. If you wish to run the RS485 in full-duplex mode, the interface must be wired with two separate pairs of wires; A&B on one pair, and Out+&Out- on the other pair.

DB9-485

Raveon’s RS-485 I/O circuit uses 3.3V logic to drive the lines, and the RS485 pins are ESD protected to ±15kV and 7kV human body model. Input current is less than 150uA. Output current when not driving the line is less than 50uA.
image

Bias and Termination Resistors

RS-485 installations typically have a termination resistor across the A and B lines. For low-speed operation (<57600 baud), this resistor is probably not necessary. If you wish to use a terminating resistor, a value of 150 ohms should work in most applications.

These A/B pin names are all in use on various types of equipment. The RS485 signaling specification states that signal A is the inverting or ‘-‘ pin and signal B is the non-inverting or ‘+’ pin. The same naming is specified in the NMEA standards.

clip_image004

When an RS-485 network is in an idle state, all nodes are in listen (receive) mode. Under this condition there are no active drivers on the network. All drivers are tri-stated. Without anything driving the network, the state of the A and B line is unknown. If the voltage level at the receiver’s A and B inputs is less than ±200mV the logic level at the output of the receivers will be the value of the last bit received. In order to maintain the proper idle voltage state, bias resistors must be applied to force the data lines to the idle condition.

Terminal Blocks

To make it easy to connect your RS-485 device in the field to a Raveon data radio modem, we off a simple screw-down terminal block.  It has a male DB9 connector on it, so it plugs directly into the M7 radio modem.

TermBlockMale9

The field termination terminal block connector show above is Raveon part number DB9M-TB. Contact sales@raveon.com to order this part.  Customers purchasing the M7 radio modem with the RS-485 option should also order this field termination block because it makes installation very easy.

Radio Manager

If you are going to use Raveon’s RadioManager software to configure your product or communicate with it, the RS-488 interface must be configured as RS-485 SIMPLEX.  Duplex RS-485 will not work with RadioManger. When you configure your data radio modem to operate in RS-485 mode, you should also turn off “character echo”.  The ATE0 command disables charactor echo in the command mode.  Echo must be off for RadioManger to talk to a modem using RS-485.

RadioManager versions newer than 5.4 will automatically turn off character echo if they detect that the connected radio is using RS-485 to communicate with RadioManger.

Simplify System Design with Automatic Message Delineation

TDMA systems are often used to send consistently timed, periodic data. In these situations, system designers face the challenge of adjusting the rate data is sent to the modem to match the TDMA parameters. With Automatic Message Delineation, this constraint is removed. Instead, the modem is allowed to detect message boundaries and send only the most recent data message when TDMA airtime is available.

Under standard operation, TDMA modems buffer all data received and transmit as much as possible when time slots are available. With Automatic Message Delineation, only a single message will be buffered at a time and the most recent message will be sent over-the-air when a time slot is available.

Messages are detected using inter-character timeout. Characters that are received in rapid succession are grouped into a single message, while longer spaces between characters create an automatic message boundary. Upon reception of a new message, previously received data is cleared and the new message is queued for transmission. Message data is also cleared upon transmission.

Automatic Message Delineation automatically creates new messages and only sends the most recent data.

Automatic Message Delineation automatically creates new messages and only sends the most recent data.

To enable Automatic Message Delineation, issue the command MSGDEL 1 to the modem. To control inter-character timing, the ATR3 setting may be used. The default inter-character timeout of 20 milliseconds is usually sufficient for most systems. Automatic Message Delineation is only in effect when TDMA is enabled.

For more advanced system designs, the WMX protocol should be considered.

D70 [RC1] Software Release Notes (M7 Series)

New Features:

  • An upgrade detection engine has been added to the radio. Upgrades to D70 or later will process upgrade steps automatically, keeping functionality as identical as possible. Operation should always be verified after upgrade.
  • The CONFIG command is now supported as a user-accessible command to retrieve all radio configuration
  • The UJ (military UHF) band is now supported
  • GSV messages are now fully supported. [GX radios only]
  • Improved accuracy of accelerometer and angle readings [GX radios only]